San Diego's Fire Disaster Plan, Cleaning Boat Hulls, Dismantling San Onofre
Speaker 1: 00:00 During times of high fire danger. For example, this week in San Diego we are told to be prepared to evacuate or be without power or other services for a couple of days, but exactly how do you prepare? Last week the County office of emergency services announced it was mailing out disaster prep folders to 200,000 residents and 5,000 businesses and areas considered to be at the highest risk for wildfire. But the personal disaster plans don't just cover fire. They include preparations for earthquakes, floods and other cataclysms. Joining me to talk about the new personal disaster plans is director of the San Diego County office of emergency services, Holly Porter and Holly, welcome to the program. Thank you. Happy to be here. Now fires sup near Pacific Palisades and in San Bernardino are is still burning. We've seen brush fires here in Alpine and Talmage in recent days, so we are in the pocket of wildfire season now. Holly, what do we know about how prepared San Diegans are right now for a wildfire? Speaker 2: 01:06 We did a survey a couple of years ago and found that 38% of San Diego County residents reported having previously completed a family disaster plan. And about 50% of people said they were ready to evacuate their home in less than 15 minutes. And that's important because when you have, you know, these, these tropical storm force or even hurricane force winds that are fueling flames, it's very often that first responders will have less than 15 minutes to get an alert and warning out, uh, let alone the time it would take you to evacuate. So it's important for people to think now about what they would take with them if they had to very quickly leave their home. And this isn't just people in the rural part of the unincorporated County, you know, we've seen lots of fires and canyons recently that have resulted in evacuations. And we saw, uh, back in 2003, this Friday is actually the anniversary of the devastating 2003 fires. And during that time, the Cedar fire burned 80,000 acres and 10 hours. That's over two acres per second. And so you can see these fires move very quickly. So it's important that people are prepared. Speaker 1: 02:23 Give us some overall idea of what is in these disaster plans about wildfire. Speaker 2: 02:29 Well, it talks about things that you can do before or fire to be ready. For example, knowing at least two ways out of a each room in your house or your neighborhood, thinking in advance of what routes you can take. People are creatures of habit and we tend to travel, uh, one way to and from home in school. But it's important to know during disasters that some of those roads may be blocked or impossible. And so knowing multiple ways to a, the locations that you frequent is very keeping important documents in a fireproof container and also copies in your emergency supply kit that's accessible near an exit is a good way to prepare, getting to know your neighbors. Uh, one thing that people find very surprising is that if you add up all of the uniformed fire personnel, law enforcement personnel in San Diego County in totality, along with the emergency medical services personnel, anybody that would come to your aid during a large scale catastrophic event, all of those people put together, make up far less than 1% of our total population. Speaker 2: 03:35 That's why it's important for us to know our neighbors and to know if there's someone next to you who may not be able to self evacuate so that you can assist them and get them out of harm's way and a fast moving fire. Also practicing, evacuating. If you have children and you're at home, it may be very disconcerting to them, uh, when you're in a panic and you have less than 15 minutes to leave. Um, so, so practicing with them and letting them know what the possibilities are in terms of hazards that you may face and how your family will react during those situations. We also urge people, you know, during Santa Ana's, this is not the time to use power tools. If you're pulling your car over to the side of the road, you want to pull over on pavement, not into any kind of plant material that may catch fire. Speaker 2: 04:24 Uh, vehicles, cause lots of fires. Humans are the main cause of fires. So you don't want to throw your cigarette out the window, uh, this week for anytime, but this week in particular, um, or have a chain that's dragging from the back of your truck that can cause a spark that then ignites a fire along a freeway. So all of these are things we want people to pay attention to in San Diego County, particularly this week during a critical fire danger. The, this disaster plan also touches on terminologies used during wildfire that might confuse people. You know, it's important to know what these terms mean because every fire agency in San Diego County, we are very collaborative here. That's one of the advantages that the residents enjoy is that the fire and law enforcement agencies in our community are incredibly, uh, well coordinated. One of the things they do is, is use the same terminology like evacuation warning and evacuation order. When there's time they will issue an evacuation warning and that means get ready to leave. Evacuation order means leave immediately. Um, there's an imminent danger. Knowing what those two terms mean, uh, is very valuable. The, the guide that we have on our website ready San diego.org also includes things like soft road closure compared to a hard road closure. And then other hazards we may face. What's the difference between a tsunami watch and a tsunami advisory? All of these are things are good to know in advance. Now people in high fire areas Speaker 1: 05:58 will begin receiving these personal disaster plans in the mail that the week of October 28th and that strikes me that's pretty late in the fire season. Why did you wait so long to mail these out? Speaker 2: 06:10 We've been working with a designer to um, to put the plan together and we're hoping to get it out a little bit sooner. But um, these are actions that people can take throughout the year to be prepared. It's also available right on our website so anyone can access it in both English and Spanish and we'll, we'll have braille guides available at uh, all of the branch libraries, the 33 branch libraries for the County. But anybody can go online today and access that family disaster email@example.com Speaker 1: 06:42 now in addition to the new disaster plans, how has the office of emergency services gearing up for this week of high fire danger and specifically what new technologies are in place that you didn't have, let's say back in 2003 or 2007 Speaker 2: 06:56 there are lots of new technologies available at our disposal including situational awareness software so that all first responder agencies are using the same meeting place online to exchange information. We have gone leaps and bounds in terms of our ability to alert and warn the public when there is a need to take some sort of protective action. We utilize alert San Diego and we encourage people to register their mobile phones with alert San Diego so that we can reach out when we need people to evacuate. We have all listed and unlisted landline numbers, but most people don't have landline numbers anymore. So we want them to register their mobile phones with that system. And we also are working with now with a community emergency response teams and in the future will be uh, they'll be out, uh, doing preparedness actions. There are about 1300 community emergency response team members throughout the County of San Diego and these are people who are very active in emergency response, but we're in the future hoping to utilize them for preparedness actions to help their neighbors get ready for catastrophic events. In terms of technology, we're just in a very different place than we were in 2003 in that fire. And fortunately there are about 2,800 structures destroyed. We haven't seen anything on that scale really since, since 2007, which was another big event. But we, we just want not only the first responders are really preparing, we want the public to be prepared as well Speaker 1: 08:26 and keeping our fingers crossed. I've been speaking with director of the San Diego County office of emergency services, Holly Porter. Holly. Thank you very much. Thank you. Speaker 2: 08:37 [inaudible] Speaker 3: 08:43 [inaudible]. Speaker 1: 00:00 When he was campaigning for governor Gavin Newsome promised a lot, specifically around the housing issue. The governor announced a number of plans to close the enormous housing gap. The state now faces, but a new report out today from the Los Angeles time shows that nine months into the governor's term, not everything is working out so well. Joining us now is author of that report, LA times reporter Liam Dillon. Liam, welcome. Thank you. So one of the things the governor campaigned hard on was the number of 3.5 million new homes, 500,000 a year to be built to get us out of the housing crisis. But right now the numbers are moving in the opposite direction. What does that have to say? Uh, what does he have to say rather about that? Speaker 2: 00:44 Right. And so just to put in context for, for folks, uh, the governor promised three and a half million homes to be built between now and 2025. So that's 500,000 a year, which would it be a pace that would more than quadruple sort of the state's current levels of production? So a huge, huge, huge boost. Something we haven't seen at least since the mid 1950s in California. Right. And certainly not at a sustained level. And so what we're seeing now is the numbers kind of trending in the opposite direction. Um, you know, per hit, potentially less houses built this year than last year. The governor's response, you know, is lucky, really can't snap your fingers and, uh, get, uh, you know, a bunch of hundreds of thousands of housing permits overnight. Um, and so that's kind of, uh, you know, that's kind of where we're at in, you know, that being said, however, um, the governor shouldn't, did not put forward, um, and did not ultimately advance and measure that would substantially increase housing production this year. Speaker 1: 01:38 Newsome does point to some successes with this. Notably getting the red cap legislation through that was a pretty big accomplishment. Right? Speaker 2: 01:45 Absolutely. Yeah. I mean, he can point to a number of things that got done, uh, you know, this year that were big struggles in, in years past. He, you know, added around $3 billion, uh, for housing and homelessness initiatives, which really helped ours really, you know, going to help, um, you know, finance new housing for low income residents. Also the rent cap to um, California can sort of credibly claim to have one of the strongest, if not the strongest, um, uh, provisions across the country to protect renters from being, uh, from uh, from facing sort of gigantic rent increases are being evicted. Speaker 1: 02:16 Part of the problem the governor is running up against is resistance from cities across the state to mandates on new housing construction. In the case of Huntington beach, there are lawsuits pending. How does he plan to deal with pushback from cities? Speaker 2: 02:30 Yeah, that's a really good question. I mean, he's, he's promised that a intern next year will be the year. Like he's really going to take on some of the local goals that may prevent, may prevent a building. But yes, part of the problem is, you know, when you do that longstanding issue in California, politics were locals, cities and counties generally have the authority to decide what's going to be built in their communities. And so if you try to unwind that as the governor seems to be trying to do, trying to do, and you're going to face resistance, and that means lawsuits, that means those things may take a long time themselves to resolve. Speaker 1: 03:02 The governor is also running into resistance from his fellow Democrats in the legislature when he threatened to withhold state transportation dollars from cities that didn't approve new housing, the Democrats pushed back. Um, if he's facing that kind of resistance from his own party, what does that mean in terms of being able to work together on this issue? Speaker 2: 03:21 I think it really goes to show how hard this issue is and not necessarily, it's not necessarily as partisan as maybe some of the other issues say for instance, immigration or our ways to address the economy or even health care, things like that, which generally stands to fall under partisan lines and housing. You know, you have a number of folks, um, who think differently, think very differently about the role of local government, the role of the state, how much money should be, um, uh, uh, you know, advanced, uh, the role of local zoning laws. And so a number of the governor's housing initiatives have been opposed by Democrats and in fact, sort of the biggest hope, biggest profile, a housing bill of the year, one that would have allowed for, um, you know, more, uh, density and single family homes and, and your transit and, and your job centers that was, you know, shaped and ultimately held by prominent Democrats in the legislature. So, uh, ultimately this is an argument among Democrats as it is among anybody else in the state. Speaker 1: 04:16 And Newsome has called on the States rich tech companies to chip in to build affordable housing. How's that working out? Speaker 2: 04:23 So in January, he called on a, said he was planning to have $500 million from tech companies this year to, to, to, to help build a sort of housing for their employees. That didn't happen, um, throughout the budget process. Um, but however, uh, today, uh, Facebook announced that they were going to be contributing $250 million to the state. And so the governor, my interview with him, uh, hinted that something big was coming. This is certainly something big and sounds like he's now halfway towards his goal though it might be a year late, Speaker 1: 04:51 the former director of the state department of housing and community development under Newsome and former governor Jerry Brown, also a say Newsome sweeping agenda on not only housing but healthcare and criminal justice reform means he can't focus on any one issue. What is the governor's reaction to that criticism? Speaker 2: 05:11 Yeah, that's actually a common criticism of the governor. And his first year he had this sort of very broad portfolio promising a lot of things and a lot of different areas. And it sort of the argument being that if you do that, it's very, very hard to kind of go deep on a, on, on any one of them. Um, and so the governor firmly reject did that, uh, that idea he said he was very happy with what he did. And, and housing this year, I'm acknowledge that there were still obviously a lot more things to do, but it's again, did not, did not at all concede that he was not focused on housing this year. Speaker 1: 05:40 And your article, it seemed the governor got a bit defensive and answering some of your questions. Is that the way he came across in person? Speaker 2: 05:47 You know, it was a cordial conversation. Um, I think that he understands the extent to which that housing is central to his agenda central to which the, the, the sort of the state is evaluated. I mean, one really good point on that is California has the nation's highest poverty rate, uh, only when housing costs are taking into consideration. And so this is really central to kind of, you know, really everything that, that, that, that, that, that, that is getting done right now in California. And so he understands he will be judged on that, particularly with all the big promises he made. Obviously this is his first year of his tenure. But in order to kind of change the mechanics and, uh, and get the wheels to move in a different direction and housing really have to start early and you really have to start big. I've been speaking with Liam Dillon of the Los Angeles times. Liam, thank you very much. Thank you. Speaker 3: 06:41 [inaudible]. Speaker 1: 00:00 Local scientists are looking at a problem that has been plaguing voters since ancient times. KPBS science and technology reporters. Shalina chat, Lani spoke to the San Diego state university researcher who may have found a way to stop Marine gunk from sticking to the bottom of boats Speaker 2: 00:20 at appear in mission Bay diver Brian Hall and his colleagues zip into their wetsuits. They will put themselves with sponges and in the tight space between a boat and the dock, they plunge into the water. The bottom of this boat suffers from something known as biofouling. The hole is caked with heavy crusty white tube worms and these two divers have been hired to scrub them away. Brian Hall is the owner of a boat Hull cleaning business. Speaker 3: 00:49 No, we'll end up with oysters and clams and mussels that grow on these boats. Uh, it starts with a, you know, a slime or small algae, uh, and then progresses to the, to the harder, more complex growth. Speaker 2: 00:59 Paul says the average boat owner can spend around $1,500 a year just to get rid of these invasive and heavy Marine species. And if the boat owners do nothing, this Marine Gunks still cost them money because it decreases fuel performance. Speaker 3: 01:14 The new boater is often shocked. We get people that purchase new boats three or four months later. Then we get an emergency call and they've got a forest down there and they tried to go to Catalina and realized they were going half the speed they could be. Speaker 2: 01:25 Biofouling isn't new since ancient times. Boat owners have used paints with toxic materials like tin to prevent Marine life from building up. Some of these paints have been banned because they hurt Marine life. The need for solutions has caught the attention of not only boaters, but also scientists in his lab on the San Diego state university campus, Marine microbiologists, Nicholas Shikumen, points to a Petri dish bubbling with water inside is bacteria and a small colony of white, cylindrical two birds. He's looking at how the bacteria and tube worms interact. Speaker 4: 01:59 Lots of these rain organisms, um, decide where to stick to the bottoms of ships based on whether there's a friendly bacteria on the bottom. Speaker 2: 02:08 For years, Kuma has been investigating why this bacteria attracts Marine gunk. And he's figured out one reason why Speaker 4: 02:16 the bacteria actually produce this syringe structure that, um, turns out in Jax, a stimulatory protein into the tube worm baby and then causes it to stick to the bottom of the ship. Speaker 2: 02:30 Picture a stinger on a bumblebee. The insects use stingers to repel enemies and so do bacteria on the bottom of boats. But the problem is tube worms ended up liking it so they stick around to get more. Shakira says in the future these bacteria could be genetically modified to be less attractive to tube worms, but he says that's still theoretical right now. Still, he's not the only scientists coming up with ideas. In fact, the U S Navy has been funding labs across the country address this issue including shuchu Mazu. There are, um, now coatings available that have less toxin in them, which is a positive for the environment. Uh, and we believe as we continue to do the research that we'll only get better. Linda, Chrissy is with the office of Naval research. She says biofouling costs Navy around 200 million a year in lost fuel and cleaning. The Navy uses paints that are less toxic than before, but these paints still have some heavy metals like copper and they don't last long, so it doesn't prevent to berms in the longterm. Speaker 2: 03:31 And so that's why studying their behavior in the biology is important. If we can recognize what types of features of a surface make that an unappealing surface. We're halfway there in terms of having a coding that is both friendly to the environment as well as helping the Navy solve its problems. The research program has been going on for a while and it will continue, but with discoveries like those from Shikumen, she believes in the next decade the Navy will come closer to developing an effective commercial product. One that's based on nature. The fact that an organism like the tube worm would come to rely on a bacterium to develop. I think it's pretty cool. Back at the pier boat cleaner, Brian Hall isn't worried. The research will put them out of business. That's because boats required care in a lot of different ways. You know, anything that helps prevent bio Falcons is a good thing. Ultimately, if anything, he says finding a solution for a centuries old problem may encourage more people to get a boat. Speaker 1: 04:28 Andy says it means less toxic chemicals for the Marine environment. Joining me is KPB a science and technology reporter. Shalina Chote Lani and Shalina. Welcome. Hi. Thanks for having me. Is this biofouling the same as barnacles growing on a boat that we've heard about for centuries? Yes. It's all that stuff. It's the barnacles, the algae, the Marine micro organisms that are collecting on the bottom of the boat, um, and packing on a bunch of weight to the hole. So since this is an age old problem, what got you interested in this story? I actually found out that there was a researcher at San Diego state university that had been looking into the issue of biofouling for a while and he made a new discovery of specifically about the relationship between the bacteria, the friendly bacteria that exists on the bottom of the boats and the tube worms that tend to be attracted to the boats. Speaker 1: 05:21 And so I got very interested in the scientific reasons why bow biofouling has happened for so long. Now, did the researcher at San Diego state tell you where the bacteria that attracts the to worm, where does that bacteria come from? Is it exclusively a Marine bacteria? Um, he didn't say exclusively where it comes from, but it sounds like it is a Marine type of bacteria because biofouling happens on nearly every surface that ends up in the water. Even in freshwater, there's a freshwater algae that tends to collect on surfaces. So he described it as simply a friendly bacteria that exists on the bottom of boats. That researcher said it might be possible to genetically engineer the bacteria so it's not as attractive to, to worms. How would a genetically altered bacteria be introduced into the environment? His idea is that now that we understand the way this mechanism works, we could potentially create some kind of spray or, uh, some kind of product that would latch onto the bacteria and sort of genetically modify them so that they don't, uh, create these syringe like structures that end up attracting these Marine organisms. Speaker 1: 06:38 Um, to come and stick to the bottom of the boat. He acknowledges it's a theoretical concept. We do have lots of DNA editing tools now. So, you know, it's also very possible as well. Okay. So it sounds like the Navy still coached the bottom of the ships, the hell with a slightly less toxic material to try to keep the biofouling away. Is that still allowed for civilian boats or is that something only the Navy does, so it's still allowed for civilian boats. There's, there's been a long history of, uh, so-called antifouling paints, um, and they've existed just like biofouling since ancient times. Um, some of the, you know, more aggressive paints would have things like arsenic. And so we've really evolved and we've slowly progressed to paints that release toxins into the ocean at a slower rate, so they're still toxic. But there's a lot of discussion happening within the, uh, boating communities as to how to reduce the use of these types of paints as well. Speaker 1: 07:40 And that's kind of where these scientific solutions to dealing with biofouling, um, are really coming into play now considering that boat hulls have been the home for sea creatures since forever. Um, does that 10 year time frame, the Navy hopes for a solution seem a little ambitious? That was a question that I, uh, posited to Linda, Chrissy, she's the, uh, she's with the office of Naval research and you know, this research program that they've been funding grants around the country for scientists to address this one issue of biofouling. It's been happening for a while. Um, and so there have, she says there have already been commercial products that have come out of it. Uh, they are, they're really good for the, you know, first few times a use them and then eventually, you know, they're less and less effective. So I asked her, you know, how long is it really gonna take to come to a solution? And she's, she seems pretty positive that, you know, within the next 10, 15 years we'll figure out a scientific way of stopping biofouling at its very origins and its biological natural mechanisms. Um, which is what, you know, dr [inaudible] here at San Diego state university has been looking into, so I would say she, yeah, she thinks a 10 to 15 year timeframe is, is doable. It's manageable. Okay. Interesting. I've been speaking with KPBS science and technology reporter Shalina Chut Lani, thank you so much. Thank you. Speaker 1: 00:00 Southern California Edison will proceed with plans to dismantle the San Onofre nuclear generating station. This comes after the California coastal commission approved the plans last week. Edison official said the complete dismantlement will take eight to 10 years in efforts will likely start late this year or early next. But as the San Diego union Tribune, Rob Nikolsky reports, the move is being met with opposition. Rob, welcome. Hi, how are you? I cannot complain but I as I understand quite a few people can hear. Speaker 2: 00:30 Yes. A, they had the meeting last week and there were a number of people who, one of the coastal commission, the California coastal commission to either deny or postpone the permit so that Southern California Edison can commence eventually dismantling what's left of the nuclear power plant there. Speaker 1: 00:49 And, and let's get a little background here. So, so when was Santa no afraid decommissioned and why? Speaker 2: 00:55 It was decommissioned, I think it was 2013 it was because there was a steam generator problem there and it leaked a little bit of radiation and they shut the plant down at about six months later they decided to decommission the plant. And since that point they've, I've been basically tearing down the plant. But now with this permit, there'll be able to take down the big structures, including the most notable feature. When you drive by [inaudible], you see on the left, on the or of you're heading North or you see it on the left, you'll see the, uh, the big cooling towers, units two and three, those are 200 feet tall and they're going to be dismantled and about five or six years, wow. And remind us of where this spent nuclear fuel is being stored. It's going from what storage? They're transferring it over to a dry storage facility that they just recently constructed about a year ago. Speaker 2: 01:47 Uh, all together there'll be 73 canisters that are going to be moved from what storage where they've been cooled and they're going to move them. They, and they move them on these, these large contraptions that move about three miles an hour. They move very carefully. If there's any sense of that there's an earthquake coming or something like that or any kind of trembling that they stop but they move them from the wet storage to this brand new dry storage facility. So, so we have a non-working nuclear power plant with nuclear fuel stored nearby. So what exactly did the coastal commission improve then? Last week they approved the dismantling of the structures and eventually the plan is that you remediate this site and give it back to the Navy cause that's as people can recall that the actual site of the power plant belongs to the U S Navy. It's in camp Pendleton. Speaker 2: 02:42 And what about the pools where nuclear fuel is cooled? Can Edison remove them? Yes they can. The nuclear regulatory commission does not require the licensee to keep spent fuel in what they call wet storage, which is East pools, which they take the thermally hot nuclear fuel and cool it for about five years. And that was really one of the big arguments that the people who wanted to have the permit denied, were arguing for, were saying we should keep the spent fuel pools there. As long as there is our canisters there, you should keep the spent fuel pools there. Now, Southern California Edison has come back and said that their argument is that it's better to knock down the pools. And if there's a problem with one of the canisters, it's better to do that too, to not have the pools. Because if you move, if you keep the pool fair, they say there's more risk in terms of increased radiation dose to workers. There's also potential radiation releases or damage to the fuel rods if you're moving them back into wet storage. Speaker 1: 03:44 And this, the process itself will take between eight and 10 years. Speaker 2: 03:49 Um, why will it have the dismantlement exactly for the dismantlement, why will it take so long? Well, because there's a lot of stuff there and, and also you're still transferring the spent fuel from wet storage to dry swords that they expect that to get done in about by middle of next summer. They've got 38 more transfers to do. So it's going to take some time and eventually if and when that glorious day comes and we've got a national repository just to have the nuclear fuel go-to, that entire 84 acre chunk will return back to the Navy and people can still be able to go out to the beach and instead of seeing a dry storage facility and a seawall and a switch yard, it might be able to be reverted back to its natural site and there was some loud Speaker 1: 04:39 objections to dismantling the plant during the session. Who objected and why? Speaker 2: 04:43 Well, they were a lot of objections mostly to knocking down the spent fuel pools. People, a lot of people believe that as long as the canisters are there, you should keep the spent fuel pools present. If there's a problem, if you want to inspect the canisters or if you think that there might be something wrong with the fuel inside the canisters, you can go back and put them into a what storage facility and inspect them again Speaker 1: 05:09 in many of the commissioners weren't happy about the entire situation either. Tell us what their problems are. Speaker 2: 05:14 Their main problem was the fact that the federal government hasn't gotten off the dime on this and that the fact that until we find a national repository, you're going to have to have spent fuel staying at Santa. No fray. Speaker 1: 05:28 Hmm. Well, this is something I know you'll continue to follow for a very long time. I've been speaking with Rob Nikolsky energy reporter with the San Diego union Tribune. Rob, thank you very much. Thank you. Speaker 1: 00:00 Oceanside's museum of art is celebrating the art of nails and local innovation. Creative nail design products are in many nail salons and it was actually created right in Oceanside 40 years ago. Jen Arnold's father, who was a dentist and chemist back in 1979 created a nail polymer inside their garage that would go on to be used to create extravagant nail art and the product line known today as C and D to celebrate 40 years of nail art innovation C and D in Oceanside, museum of art teamed up to open tiny canvases. I walked through the four rooms of the exhibit to view more than 10,000 adorned nails with Jan Arnold, cofounder of C and D. Speaker 2: 00:43 this exhibit, you go through a number of rooms, all of them tell a story and it all starts right here. It really starts here and I think the name says it all. It's tiny canvases, the art of nails. And we thought in this image that we would feature this amazing corset all made out of nail tips. So there are about a thousand nail tips. This was made by the blondes during our Ruby anniversary at CMD. And you know, we wanted to take a look at the art form of nails and tell the extraordinary story of what goes into the art, who the artists are, what the history of Nella tournament is. Such a rich, rich history. And so onto this next room here, I feel like we've stepped into a timeline as well as the lab like nail of it. I love this room because this room starts on the right side with the ancient history of nails where we learned that back in three 3,200 BC, the Babylonians who will put charcoal on their nails to intimidate their opponents. Speaker 2: 01:53 Um, the Chinese end purses would glow, grow their nails out very, very long and were gilded cages to protect their nails, which is amazing. Cleopatra known for her beauty and her makeup and nail. She would Hennis stain her nails or gild them in the case of our Cleopatra. Um, but the ancient history is very rich and then modern history and you know, I feel like, you know, people are under the perception that nail art. It. Look, this is something new and it's been around since 3,200 BC. Yes, I hear people all the time seeing on nail art just became popular in the last five years when in fact, yes, it has a very rich history, but I think making nail art tangible to every woman really depends on innovation, which takes us to the C and D history where in our laboratory, right in originally in Oceanside, California, we are the brand of firsts with revolutionary breakthroughs from solar nail to retention plus liquid and powder Breesa gel. Speaker 2: 03:05 Even Schlack the manicure miracle about 10 years ago changed women's lives. But tell me, you father actually, uh, created this in the garage, in the garage. I actually have the picture of the garage right here. So right in ocean side up on hunts sakers street. My dad was a dentist of by profession, but he was also a chemist. So in his garage he had the whole lab set up as kids. He would design toothpaste and mouth rinse. One day, a manicurist back then was called manicures sitting in his chair and she said, I need something to sculpt nails long, thin color, stable, beautifully natural looking. And he discovered solar nail the first ever cross linked polymer resin and that set the course for a 40 year legacy of innovation. Oh my gosh. And that 40 years takes us into here. Yes, you can see, Whoa. Speaker 2: 04:07 So that the fruits of our labors, so this is our exhibit of the actual, there are about 10,000 tiny canvases in all of our displays and each board tells a different story from often garde to vintage pop art. Um, every story you can imagine. But when you look at the intricacy of the art, you see this little bird skull, it's actually made out of liquid and powder, acrylic by hand, by Winnie Wong. In this case, these flower bouquets are all made out of shellac gel, Polish layers of nail Polish, gel Polish turned and twisted into little bouquets and placed on nails. Can you really train for this type of artistry or is this something that you just have to have a talent for? I think the artists in this case, the really avant garde visionaries, it's why we really wanted to do this exhibit is to honor their skill and talent. Speaker 2: 05:08 Um, but I think, you know, I would take my nails as an example that we can be inspired by these flower bouquets and then get a floral bouquet manicure. That honestly, I can wear these nails with absolutely everything and minimal jewelry because my nails tell the assessory story. So from runway to real way, and let's look at this because you really helped to inspire the runways. But I can remember a time when you would not see nail art on the runway. Um, back in the early nineties, nails were bare. And I remember as a brand we said, why? Like nails are these assessors that everyone can wear. And it adds such an accent to the outfit. So one by one we approach designers. These are two of our favorite partners, Libertine w where he has just exploded by upcycling beautiful, you know, all of these amazing embellishments. Speaker 2: 06:14 Um, so the, these two looks are Libertine and then the Pearl look and the snake look are the blondes, the very famous corset makers. They make couture courses for Beyonce, lady Gaga, Katy Perry, um, Jennifer Lopez. And we have done their shows since they started their business. Oh my goodness. You told me a story about really being nervous about beets, cringe nails here. So we were talking to Johnson Hardig, the designer of Libertine, and he said, why don't we do fringe nails? Well, long story short, we decided to do three foot long fringe nails. And right before this show started, I mean all this fringe was hand dyed, beautifully placed, all the models had it on their nails. I went to take my seat in the front row and I was so scared that the models like it didn't even Dawn on me. They might trip on it. Speaker 2: 07:11 In fact, the fringe wafted down the runway like magic. And right after the show, Vogue rushed back and did a huge story. And talk to me a bit about the accessibility in terms of the fashion industry. Many people may not be able to afford the high end fashion designers, but now art is a bit more accessible. Oh, I D I call nails the ultimate cheap thrill. And I say that with all due respect, you could buy the, you know, the Libertine jacket for 10,000 or you can go to your local salon and get the Libertine look for $50 a hundred dollars if you really go extravagant. So it's really nails are for everyone, not only females, but men as well. So that closes out the tiny canvases art exhibit here at Oceanside museum of art. Jan Arnold, thank you so much for joining us. Jan has been the Visionaire of this exhibit and is cofounder of C and D. thanks again for you. Thank you. And tiny canvases will run until February 9th at the ocean side museum of art.