skip to main content

Listen

Read

Watch

Schedules

Programs

Events

Give

Account

Donation Heart Ribbon

Vaccine Refusals Fueled California’s Whooping Cough Epidemic

When the whooping cough vaccine was invented in the 1940s, doctors thought they had finally licked the illness, which is especially dangerous for babies. But then it came roaring back.

In 2010, a whooping cough outbreak in California sickened 9,120 people, more than in any year since 1947. Ten infants died; babies are too young to be vaccinated.

Public health officials suspected that the increased numbers of parents who refused to vaccinate their children played a role, but they couldn't be sure.

Vaccine refusal was indeed a factor, researchers now say. They compared the location and number of whooping cough, or pertussis, cases in that outbreak with the personal belief exemptions filed by parents who chose not to vaccinate for reasons other than a child's health. (Some children with compromised immune systems aren't able to be vaccinated.)

Pertussis is very contagious, spreading quickly through a community. So the researchers had to map not only the location of outbreak clusters, but also when they appeared.

They found that people who lived in areas with high rates of personal belief exemptions were 2 1/2 times more likely to live in a place with lots of pertussis cases. "The exemptions clustered spatially and were associated with clusters of cases," Jessica Atwell, a graduate student at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and lead author on the study, told Shots. It was published online in the journal Pediatrics.

Both exemptions and clusters of pertussis cases tended to be in neighborhoods with higher levels of education and income. Statewide about 2 percent of parents file an exemption, but the number varied hugely from one community to the text. In some schools more than three-quarters of the families filed exemptions.

When the number of people vaccinated drops below 95 percent, a community loses herd immunity to highly contagious germs like pertussis, and babies and other unvaccinated people can get sick. In 2010, 91 percent of kindergarteners were up to date on their shots in California.

Vaccine refusal wasn't the only factor fueling the California outbreak. Pertussis is a cyclical disease. Protection from the current version of pertussis vaccine appears to fade more quickly than doctors originally thought, so many older children vaccinated as youngsters were no longer immune to the bacterium. And many adults had never gotten a booster.

Finally, this study couldn't tell if the parents who filed exemptions had vaccinated their children against some diseases, or which ones.

California has since launched a statewide campaign to get both children and adults vaccinated, with a booster required for attendance at middle school. But parents can still file for personal belief exemptions, and they do.

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit www.npr.org.

Comments

Avatar for user 'MadMamaBear'

MadMamaBear | October 1, 2013 at 7:49 a.m. ― 1 year ago

Your headline is very misleading.

"Report CONCLUSIONS: Our data "SUGGEST" clustering of NMEs "MAY" have been 1 of "SEVERAL" factors in the 2010 California pertussis resurgence"

.http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2013/09/24/peds.2013-0878.full.pdf+html


In case you missed it back in 2010, here's the KPBS report - http://www.kpbs.org/.../dec/16/behind-whooping-cough-story/

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'MadMamaBear'

MadMamaBear | October 1, 2013 at 8:01 a.m. ― 1 year ago

Whooping Cough Outbreaks in Vaxed Children More and More Frequent

"The lesson of these outbreaks is that the modern medical paradigm is deeply flawed. Now it’s caught with its knickers down and no decent explanation, since those it claims to have protected are victims."

http://gaia-health.com/gaia-blog/2012-11-27/whooping-cough-outbreaks-in-vaccinated-children-become-more-and-more-frequent/

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'MadMamaBear'

MadMamaBear | October 1, 2013 at 8:03 a.m. ― 1 year ago

“Anti-vaccine movement causes the worst whooping cough epidemic in 70 years”- Oh Really???

- See more at: http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/2012/08/20/anti-vaccine-movement-causes-the-worst-whooping-cough-epidemic-in-70-years-oh-really/#sthash.t85u6pCN.dpuf

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'MadMamaBear'

MadMamaBear | October 1, 2013 at 8:06 a.m. ― 1 year ago

Investigating Whooping Cough In case you missed it back in 2010, here's the KPBS report -


( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Anon11'

Anon11 | October 1, 2013 at 9:22 a.m. ― 1 year ago

@mamabear

You post tons of links to studies that don't support what you claim they do. Quit spreading dangerous misinformation.

Read this: http://www.reddit.com/r/Parenting/comments/1n9tme/after_6_years_im_finally_getting_my_son/ccgoqtq

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Anon11'

Anon11 | October 1, 2013 at 9:37 a.m. ― 1 year ago

"The best way to prevent pertussis is to get vaccinated."

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/vaccines.html

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Peking_Duck_SD'

Peking_Duck_SD | October 1, 2013 at 11:22 a.m. ― 1 year ago

MadMamaBear is indeed mad.

And ignorant.

And spewing ridiculous nonsense.

It's whack jobs like this who cause epidemics like the whooping cough outbreak.

People like MadMamaLoon are the reason major websites are starting to eliminate comments areas on their websites.

Infiltrated propaganda based on dangerous lies that can impact public health and safety.

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Lowell'

Lowell | June 27, 2014 at 4:09 p.m. ― 4 months ago

Actually the evidence is certainly sufficient to conclude that there are obviously major vaccine failures going on with both pertussis, and measles vaccine. Instead of the CDC being forth right as to that information; first they start cocoon style vaccinating entire families, which failed; so then they start in with the push to vaccinate with an aluminum adjuvant containing Tdap vaccine, every pregnant woman everywhere and every adult that will allow themselves to be. And its still failing.

Warning to Pregnant Mothers - Toxic Dose of Aluminum in the Tdap, by Paul Thomas, Pediatrician
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VoY6vXEMsU8

The Current Failure of Pertussis and Measles Vaccine
http://www.vacfacts.info/the-current-failure-of-pertussis-and-measles-vaccine.html

How can they claim to that vaccinating would prevent pertussis in a newborn or those to young to be vaccinated when their was a well known baboon study recently that conclusively proves that the vaccinated can and do still spread the pathogen when exposed and challenged; even though they may remain asymptomatic. To my knowledge this does not happen when immune to pertussis through natural infection. So, why are they not doing the long overdue studies such as this baboon study, in regard to all vaccines. That would be real science in regard to vaccines.

They more than likely have evaded such studies because the possible findings just may bring about a conclusion that the only way to eradicate these illnesses, is through natural immunity. There goes your toxic and contaminated vaccine program, and all its profits.

Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/11/20/1314688110.abstract

Pertussis Vaccine Study Shatters Illusion of Vaccine-Induced Immunity
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/12/10/whooping-cough-pertussis-vaccine.aspx

Nonhuman Primate Model of Pertussis

Our results demonstrate that the baboon provides an excellent model of clinical pertussis that will allow researchers to investigate pertussis pathogenesis and disease progression, evaluate currently licensed vaccines, and develop improved vaccines and therapeutics.

http://iai.asm.org/content/80/4/1530.full

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Lowell'

Lowell | June 27, 2014 at 4:10 p.m. ― 4 months ago

Whooping Cough Vaccine Does Not Work – Says US FDA’s Research

The abstract of the paper states:

Baboons vaccinated with aP were protected from severe pertussis-associated symptoms but not from colonization, did not clear the infection faster than naïve animals, and readily transmitted B. pertussis to unvaccinated contacts. Vaccination with wP induced a more rapid clearance compared with naïve and aP-vaccinated animals. By comparison, previously infected animals were not colonized upon secondary infection. Although all vaccinated and previously infected animals had robust serum antibody responses, we found key differences in T-cell immunity. Previously infected animals and wP-vaccinated animals possess strong B. pertussis-specific T helper 17 (Th17) memory and Th1 memory, whereas aP vaccination induced a Th1/Th2 response instead. The observation that aP, which induces an immune response mismatched to that induced by natural infection, fails to prevent colonization or transmission provides a plausible explanation for the resurgence of pertussis and suggests that optimal control of pertussis will require the development of improved vaccines.”

http://childhealthsafety.wordpress.com/2013/11/28/whooping-cough-vaccine-does-not-work-says-us-fdas-research/

Acellular pertussis vaccination enhances B. parapertussis colonization

An acellular whooping cough vaccine actually enhances the colonization of Bordetella parapertussis in mice; pointing towards a rise in B. parapertussis incidence resulting from acellular vaccination, which may have contributed to the observed increase in whooping cough over the last decade.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20200027

http://www.cidd.psu.edu/research/synopses/acellular-vaccine-enhancement-b.-parapertussis

Rapid Increase in Pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Australia

Abstract
Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008–2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (prn). Multiple mechanisms of prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/4/13-1478_article.htm

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Lowell'

Lowell | June 27, 2014 at 4:10 p.m. ― 4 months ago

Arch Dis Child. Aug 2003; 88(8): 684–687.
doi: 10.1136/adc.88.8.684
PMCID: PMC1719607
Clinical and epidemiological picture of B pertussis and B parapertussis infections after introduction of acellular pertussis vaccines

Results: There were 180 Bordetella infections; 116 (64%) were caused by B pertussis and 64 (36%) by B parapertussis. Incidence rates were 4.8 and 2.8 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Paroxysmal cough, post-tussive whooping, and vomiting ≥21 days was found in 53%, 22%, and 8% of all B pertussis cases and in 22%, 5%, and 0% of all B parapertussis cases, respectively. A total of 81/116 (70%) B pertussis cases and 56/64 (87.5%) B parapertussis cases had received at least one dose of pertussis vaccine. Typical pertussis with paroxysmal cough ≥21 days was present in 29/35 (83%) unvaccinated B pertussis cases, in contrast to 33/81 (41%) vaccinated B pertussis cases.

Conclusion: Following the increase of pertussis vaccination coverage, we observed a relative increase of B parapertussis cases in comparison to B pertussis cases. In vaccinated children B pertussis disease frequently presented as a mild disease, clinically difficult to distinguish from diseases associated with coughing caused by B parapertussis and other viral or bacterial infections.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1719607/

2013 Provisional Pertussis Surveillance Report
​2,570 listed cases of acquiring pertussis after 3 plus doses of B pertussis vaccine. Another 343 cases after 1 to 2 doses of vaccine.
http://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/downloads/pertussis-surveillance-report.pdf

Whooping Cough Outbreak- Largest in 50 yrs

Its all over the news, the internet and the newspapers. Largest whooping cough outbreak in 5 decades....go get vaccinated and protect your children...oh my...thats the LAST THING you should do. Heres why.

http://www.educate4theinjured.org/#!pertussis-outbreak-4567008830/c1oa5

And why are we additionally having measles outbreaks where 90% were fully vaccinated?

Why is the CDC and FDA Still Recommending the Failed Whooping Cough Vaccine?
http://healthimpactnews.com/2014/why-is-the-cdc-and-fda-still-recommending-the-failed-whopping-cough-vaccine/

The Measles Vaccine Failure the U.S. Media is not Covering
http://healthimpactnews.com/2014/the-measles-vaccine-failure-the-u-s-media-is-not-covering/

The 2013 Measles Outbreak: A Failing Vaccine, Not A Failure To Vaccinate
http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/2013-measles-outbreak-failing-vaccine-not-failure-vaccinate1

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Lowell'

Lowell | June 27, 2014 at 5 p.m. ― 3 months, 4 weeks ago

Big Surprise - Whooping Cough Spreads Mainly through Vaccinated Populations
81 Percent of Whooping Cough Cases Occurred in People Who Were Fully Vaccinated
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/04/17/pertussis-vaccine-for-whooping-cough-effects.aspx

Whooping cough vaccine fades in pre-teens: study

I also noticed that under Results in the abstract it lists vaccine effectiveness was 41%, 24%, and 79% for children aged 2–7 years, 8–12 years, 13–18 years, respectively. That as well does not seem to be real good, nor very impressive. Thus indeed that figure of 81% in the outbreak that were found to be fully vaccinated and up to date, would have likely been quite predicable and probable. (Abstract link below)

Excerpts:

"We have a real belief that the durability (of the vaccine) is not what was imagined," said Dr. David Witt, an infectious disease specialist at Kaiser Permanente Medical Center in San Rafael, California, and senior author of the study.

The pertussis vaccine, a five-shot series referred to as DTaP, is recommended for children at ages two-, four-, six- and 18-months, and at four to six years old.

The CDC recommends that at age 11 or 12 kids get the booster shot called Tdap.

In early 2010, a spike in cases appeared at Kaiser Permanente in San Rafael, and it was soon determined to be an outbreak of whooping cough -- the largest seen in California in more than 50 years.

Witt had expected to see the illnesses center around unvaccinated kids, knowing they are more vulnerable to the disease.

"We started dissecting the data. What was very surprising was the majority of cases were in fully vaccinated children. That's what started catching our attention," said Witt.

To figure out just how well the vaccine was working, Witt and his colleagues collected information on every patient who had tested positive for pertussis between March and October, 2010.

Of the 132 patients under age 18, 81 percent were up to date on recommended whooping cough shots and eight percent had never been vaccinated. The other 11 percent had received at least one shot, but not the complete series.

The rate of cases for each age, two through 18 years old, peaked among kids in their pre-teens.

Read more:
http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/03/us-whoopingcough-idUSBRE8320TM20120403

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Lowell'

Lowell | June 27, 2014 at 5:01 p.m. ― 3 months, 4 weeks ago

Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model

Significance

Pertussis has reemerged as an important public health concern since current acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) replaced older whole-cell vaccines (wP). In this study, we show nonhuman primates vaccinated with aP were protected from severe symptoms but not infection and readily transmitted Bordetella pertussis to contacts. Vaccination with wP and previous infection induced a more rapid clearance compared with naïve and aP-vaccinated animals. While all groups possessed robust antibody responses, key differences in T-cell memory suggest that aP vaccination induces a suboptimal immune response that is unable to prevent infection. These data provide a plausible explanation for pertussis resurgence and suggest that attaining herd immunity will require the development of improved vaccination strategies that prevent B. pertussis colonization and transmission.

Abstract
Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis rates in the United States have been rising and reached a 50-y high of 42,000 cases in 2012. Although pertussis resurgence is not completely understood, we hypothesize that current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines fail to prevent colonization and transmission. To test our hypothesis, infant baboons were vaccinated at 2, 4, and 6 mo of age with aP or whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and challenged with B. pertussis at 7 mo. Infection was followed by quantifying colonization in nasopharyngeal washes and monitoring leukocytosis and symptoms. Baboons vaccinated with aP were protected from severe pertussis-associated symptoms but not from colonization, did not clear the infection faster than naïve animals, and readily transmitted B. pertussis to unvaccinated contacts. Vaccination with wP induced a more rapid clearance compared with naïve and aP-vaccinated animals. By comparison, previously infected animals were not colonized upon secondary infection. Although all vaccinated and previously infected animals had robust serum antibody responses, we found key differences in T-cell immunity. Previously infected animals and wP-vaccinated animals possess strong B. pertussis-specific T helper 17 (Th17) memory and Th1 memory, whereas aP vaccination induced a Th1/Th2 response instead. The observation that aP, which induces an immune response mismatched to that induced by natural infection, fails to prevent colonization or transmission provides a plausible explanation for the resurgence of pertussis and suggests that optimal control of pertussis will require the development of improved vaccines.

Read more:
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/11/20/1314688110.abstract

( | suggest removal )

Avatar for user 'Lowell'

Lowell | June 27, 2014 at 5:02 p.m. ― 3 months, 4 weeks ago

Nonhuman Primate Model of Pertussis

Our results demonstrate that the baboon provides an excellent model of clinical pertussis that will allow researchers to investigate pertussis pathogenesis and disease progression, evaluate currently licensed vaccines, and develop improved vaccines and therapeutics.

http://iai.asm.org/content/80/4/1530.full

Pertussis Vaccine Study Shatters Illusion of Vaccine-Induced Immunity
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/12/10/whooping-cough-pertussis-vaccine.aspx

Global Population Structure and Evolution of Bordetella pertussis and Their Relationship with Vaccination

Abstract excerpt: We observed that changes in genes encoding proteins implicated in protective immunity that are included in ACVs occurred after the introduction of WCVs but before the switch to ACVs. Furthermore, our analyses consistently suggested that virulence-associated genes and genes coding for surface-exposed proteins were involved in adaptation. However, many of the putative adaptive loci identified have a physiological role, and further studies of these loci may reveal less obvious ways in which B. pertussis and the host interact. This work provides insight into ways in which pathogens may adapt to vaccination and suggests ways to improve pertussis vaccines.

IMPORTANCE Whooping cough is mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis, and current vaccines are targeted against this organism. Recently, there have been increasing outbreaks of whooping cough, even where vaccine coverage is high. Analysis of the genomes of 343 B. pertussis isolates from around the world over the last 100 years suggests that the organism has emerged within the last 500 years, consistent with historical records. We show that global transmission of new strains is very rapid and that the worldwide population of B. pertussis is evolving in response to vaccine introduction, potentially enabling vaccine escape.

Read more:
http://mbio.asm.org/content/5/2/e01074-14

This means that pertussis vaccination has caused the pertussis bacteria to mutate and develop and the new whooping cough is now more lethal than the natural one because the mutated pertussis generates more toxins.

( | suggest removal )