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Bad Blood: A Cautionary Tale

Airs Friday, August 5, 2011 at 9 p.m. on KPBS TV

Above: Promotional photo of packages of blood in a blood bank.

What if your life-saving medicine contained deadly viruses – and the drug manufacturers, the government, and your own doctors knew but failed to warn you? Through the eyes of survivors and family members, "Bad Blood: A Cautionary Tale" chronicles how a "miracle" treatment for hemophilia became an agent of death for 10,000 Americans.

Hemophilia is a rare genetic blood clotting disorder, most often passed from mother to son, resulting in severe crippling and often death. But in the 1960s, Factor concentrates, a revolutionary new treatment derived from human blood, was processed, bottled, and offered for sale by drug companies, to be injected by the patient’s themselves at home. The medicine transformed hemophilia from a fatal disease to a chronic condition and the patients were now able to lead nearly normal lives.

This “miracle” product was considered so beneficial that it was approved by the FDA despite known risks of viral contamination, including the near-certainty of infection with hepatitis -- and despite the fact that the process by which it was made, the pooling of blood from thousands of donors, was otherwise outlawed. Because of its manufacturing process, each dose of Factor concentrate was made by pooling 60,000 individual blood donations, opening these vulnerable patients to an enormous contamination risk.

Bruce Evatt and colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control work on AIDS crisis, January, 1983
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Above: Bruce Evatt and colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control work on AIDS crisis, January, 1983

At the time, pharmaceutical companies, government regulators, and even doctors considered hepatitis an “acceptable risk” for these patients. The patients themselves were rarely warned.

In the early 1980s, a deadly, unknown virus began to affect homosexual, urban men – and quickly spread to the hemophilia community, raising concern that the virus was in the nation’s blood supply. Yet even as HIV was identified, hemophiliacs dependent on multiple doses of Factor concentrate were advised by their doctors and advocacy group to keep using them.

By the time the medication was pulled from the market in 1985, 10,000 hemophiliacs had been infected with HIV, and 15,000 with hepatitis C; causing the worst medical disaster in U.S. history. In the aftermath, dire questions remained. How could this have happened? What would prevent something like this from happening again – both for hemophilia medications or for any FDA-approved medication?

Protest at the Capitol, 1996. A sign in the crowd reads: "Remember The Hemophilia Holocaust."
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Above: Protest at the Capitol, 1996. A sign in the crowd reads: "Remember The Hemophilia Holocaust."

What You Can Do?

Visit our outreach partners to find out how you can get involved with drug safety, blood safety and public health!

"Bad Blood: A Cautionary Tale" is on Facebook.

As the hemophilia community realized the extent to which the government had been lax in overseeing pharmaceutical companies, and the extent to which the safety of patients figured last in the equation of costs, benefits, and profits, they began to fight back.

Patients and families demanded more stringent regulation of industry by the government and spurred government reform over the safety of the U.S. blood supply. Today this small community stands as the guardians of the nation’s blood supply.

"Bad Blood" recounts this cautionary tale from the perspective of six families affected by this tragedy and the doctors, nurses, and scientists who cared for them.

Challenging viewers to their own vigilance, "Bad Blood" humanizes this under-reported medical disaster, stimulating further and much-needed public debate about the government’s role and effectiveness in regulating the pharmaceutical industry today.

Video

Trailer: Bad Blood: A Cautionary Tale

Above: Through the eyes of survivors and family members, "Bad Blood: A Cautionary Tale" chronicles how a "miracle" treatment for hemophilia became an agent of death for 10,000 Americans. Faced with evidence that pharmaceutical companies and government regulators knew the product was contaminated with HIV and hepatitis from the 1960s through the early 1990s, they launched a powerful and inspiring fight to right the system that failed them and to make it safer for all.